Note: Throughout this glossary, many terms and song titles are mentioned which come from Turkish, Arabic, or other languages. These Middle Eastern languages have alphabets which are different from the Roman alphabet that the English language is based on. Different people will spell these words differently when using the Roman alphabet. For example, "beledi", "baladi", "beledy", and "balady" are all possible legitimate spellings for the same word. I have tried to show more than one possible spelling for words that are frequently spelled various ways, but I don't claim to offer a comprehensive study. If you don't find the word you're looking for under the spelling you expect, keep looking--it may appear elsewhere on this page under a different spelling.
I have attempted to offer guidelines on pronunciation. I am American, and therefore my pronunciation guidelines reflect how I pronounce things with my American accent. If you really want to pronounce things authentically, then your best bet would be to make friends with native Arabs and Turks and have them teach you.
Last update: March 24, 2002
Al Jeel. (Pronounced "ahl JEEL".) This refers to a style of music popular in Egypt today, which is representative of the students and more mobile youth of Egyptian cities. It's a reaction to Western influence, to new technology, and the universal need of young people to get up and dance. The al jeel style first emerged in the mid-1980's. Like city kids everywhere, the young Egyptians wanted their own music, and they wanted it fast and danceable. Lyrics are variously about love or country, and rarely stray into more sensitive areas. Vocalists who are representative of the al jeel style include Amr Diab, Hanan, Ehab, Mohamed Moneer, Khedr, and Adel El Musree. A CD that includes several excellent examples of al jeel music is Yalla Hitlist Egypt, which is available from several belly dance vendors and other merchants who specialize in Arabic music.
Assaya. See the entry for Raqs Al Assaya.
Assuit. (Pronounced "uh SOOT".) See the entry for Tulle Bi Telli.
Awwady. (Pronounced "uh WAHD dee".) In Arabic music, this refers to the free-form improvised instrumental solo that has no underlying rhythm. This is often used for the opening few phrases of music played for a belly dancer, and it is then followed by the fast- or medium-tempo entrance music.
|Bedleh. (Pronounced "BED luh".) In Arabic, this literally means "suit". It refers to the cabaret-style beaded bra/belt/skirt/body stocking costume that a belly dancer wears for a performance. In these two photographs, Morocco is wearing a beautiful red Egyptian bedleh. Photo used with permission.|
|Beledi. (Pronounced "BELL uh dee".) Alternate spellings include Baladi, Beledy, and Balady. In Arabic, people who have relocated from their rural homes to the city would use this word to refer to "my country", "my village", or "my home town." City people, in turn, may use it disparagingly to mean the people that come from the countryside, or hicks. In belly dance circles, the word beledi has several different meanings. Some people, especially in the United States, use this word as another name for the maqsoum rhythm, which is a folkloric rhythm, and asking a musician to play a "beledi" means you're asking for a song based on that rhythm. In an Egyptian nightclub show, after performing cabaret-style raqs sharqi in bedleh, the dancer may exit and do a costume change. When she re-enters, she may be wearing a beledi dress and do a "beledi" section to her show, which means a folkloric dance done to folkloric music. For a better grasp of the cultural context of beledi, see the article written by Hossam Ramzy which also appears on this web site at http://www.shira.net/baladi.htm.|
|Beledi Dress. This is a long, floor-length dress, frequently used in belly dance costuming. Made of natural fiber such as cotton, it gives a very folkloric look and is popular among dancers who do "American tribal" style. Made out of a sheer or glittery fabric, it offers a nice covered option for a cabaret performance. In Egyptian nightclubs, after performing a raqs sharqi routine in bedleh, the dancer usually goes backstage and changes costumes, then comes out wearing a beledi dress like this one to do a folkloric dance. In this photo, Morocco's beledi dress represents the style that is popular in Egyptian nightclubs today. It is covered with paillettes that are attached to short fringes of rocaille beads. At the hipline and neckline this dress has long beaded fringe. The cane is a very appropriate prop to use when wearing a beledi dress--it is used to dance raqs al assaya. Photo used with permission.|
Chalwar. (Pronounced "CHAL war".) An alternate spelling is shalwar. Chalwar are pantaloons. The word originates from Persia.
Chiftitelli. (Pronounced "shift uh TELL lee".) An alternate spelling is chiftetelli. The word has taken on several meanings. In one of its meanings, it refers to a certain Turkish drum rhythm which is in 8/4 time. (8 beats to a measure, a quarter note gets one count.) The Arabic-speakers call the chiftitelli rhythm "wahad e noss" or "dar e noss" ( "1 & 1/2" or "hit & 1/2"). Another use of the word chiftitelli refers to an improvised musical section by a solo melody instrument that is layered over the top of that pulsing rhythm (similar to the Arabic taxim, which is defined below). There are two primary ways the chiftitelli rhythm may be played--as a fast, spirited, upbeat song, or as a slow, hypnotic, sensuous melody. The fast chiftitelli originated as a folk dance done by couples and occasionally groups, but is now frequently used by belly dancers who enjoy Turkish music. When belly dancers refer to chiftitelli, they are usually thinking of the slow chiftitelli, which they may use for floor work, balancing, or standing undulations. Greeks spell this Tsiftetelli, and in Greece this word refers not only to the musical definition of the word but is also used to mean "belly dancing" in general. That's why many Greek recordings intended for belly dancing contain the word "tsiftetelli" on the label.
Choli. (Pronounced "CHOH lee".) This is the bare-midriff, fitted blouse worn under saris by women in India. A close fit is the main characteristic of the choli, since it serves both as an undergarment and a blouse for the sari. The specific styling of the choli can vary from one region of India to another. Use of the choli for belly dance practice outfits and costumes was popularized by Carolena Nericcio of FatChanceBellyDance in San Francisco.
Debke. (Pronounced "DEB kee".) This is a folk dance native to Lebanon. It involves intricate footwork, and often some squats, and is done to folkloric music. The upper body is held in a proud, upright posture with minimal movement.
Def. (Pronounced "def".) This is a Middle Eastern frame drum which looks like a large tambourine.
|Dumbek. (Pronounced "DOOM bek".) This is the hourglass-shaped Arabic drum. May also be spelled Dumbec, Doumbek, Doumbec, or Darbuka. Traditionally, dumbeks were made of ceramic, with the head made of either goatskin or fish skin. In modern times, many dumbeks have synthetic heads, and the drum body may be made of metal.|
Habibi. (Pronounced "hah BEE bee".) This word means "my darling" or "beloved" in Arabic, and appears in many Arabic song titles and lyrics.
Hafla. (Pronounced "HAHF lah".) This basically refers to a party. A private hafla thrown by a belly dancer usually involves Middle Eastern music (sometimes live musicians jamming, sometimes just taped music), dancers taking turns performing for each other, and some open-floor dancing for everyone to get up and enjoy the music. A more public hafla may be effectively a full belly dance festival, with vendors selling their wares and a more formalized stage show.
Haik. (Pronounced "hah EEK".) This is an article of clothing in Morocco, historically worn by the Tuareg Berber nomad tribes. It consists of a piece of fabric about 6 yards long, which is wrapped around the body and fasted in place at the shoulders.
Jeel. See the entry for Al Jeel.
|Kanoun. (Pronounced "kuh NOON".) Sometimes spelled Kanun or Qanun. This is a musical instrument, common in Turkey and Arabic countries, which somewhat resembles an autoharp. Its wooden frame is designed to lie flat on a surface such as a table or the performer's lap, and the strings across it are plucked to produce the melody.|
Karsilama. (Pronounced "CAR si luh mah", where the "i" in the "si" syllable is pronounced like the "i" in "it".) This is a Turkish musical rhythm, in 9/8. This means there are 9 beats to a measure, and an eighth note gets one count. The accents occur on beats 1, 3, 5, and 7. In Turkish, it means "face to face", and there is a Turkish folk dance to this music which does involve partners dancing with each other face to face. Some belly dancers like to use a karsilama as their finale, because it's a very fast, very exciting rhythm. Songs which are based on the karsilama rhythm include Caderemen Ustunev (also called Rampi Rampi), Dere (which is Turkish), Marinella (which is Greek), Tamzara (which is Armenian), and Hoplada (which is Turkish). Click here to hear a brief RealAudio sound clip of Dere.
Kawala. (Pronounced "kuh WALL ah".) A type of flute made from a reed which resembles a Ney. Commonly used in Upper Egypt. Sometimes called a Shalabeya.
|Khaleegy. (Pronounced "kuh LEE jee".) Sometimes spelled Khaleeji or Khaliji. In Arabic, this word means "gulf", and belly dancers use it to refer to the styles of music and dance from the Persian Gulf/Arabian peninsula area--Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, and Oman. It uses a particular rhythm that American musicians and dancers often call "Saudi". The best example I have found of Khaleegy music is unfortunately now out of print: Tape 3 in the series "Ya Salaam" by Aladden Records: this includes four Khaleegy songs (Aba'ad from Kuwait, Meta Ashoofek which is Yemni folk music, Salemo Lee which is Kuwaiti folk music, and Leila Leila, which is probably the best-known of songs that use this rhythm) as well as an excellent drum solo based on the rhythm. A well-known Saudi singer who typifies the Khaleegy style is Mohammed Abdou. The typical costuming for this dance would be a thobe al nasha'ar worn to cover up your party clothes underneath. The term Khaleegy Dress, which appears in some belly dance catalogs that sell them, is another name for a Thobe Al Nashal which is written in Arabic as ثوب النشل. In this picture, Shira dances Raqs Al Nasha'ar ("hair dance", one of the dance styles from the Gulf) or Raqs al-N3ashaat ("hair tossing dance") while wearing a black thobe al nashal embroidered in gold with pearl bead accents. PHOTO CREDIT: Photos by John Rickman. For another picture of the same thobe al nashal taken from a different angle, see the entry for Thobe Al Nashal.|
Kirik Havalar. (Pronounced "KEER ick HAHV uh lar".) This is a category of Turkish music. These are tunes composed of rhythmic and measured melodies--the type of music that you could hum along with. One example of this type of music is songs based on the karsilama rhythm.
Lower Egypt. Refers to the northern part of Egypt, which encompasses the Nile river's delta. The altitude is very close to sea level.
Maqam. (Pronounced "mah KAHM".) Plural is Maqamat. The literal translation from Arabic to English means "place". A maqam is the foundation of Middle Eastern music. Instead of using a "key" or a "scale" like Western Music, Middle Eastern music is based on maqams which San Francisco musician Mimi Spencer describes as "something more than a scale, something less than a tune". The four basic elements of a maqam are 1) important notes that anchor the melodies based on that maqam, 2) a basic scale, 3) characteristic modulations from that maqam to others, and 4) a prevailing movement.
|Maqsoum. (Pronounced "mock SOOM".) Also sometimes spelled Maksoom or Maksoum. This is an Arabic musical rhythm, and can also be called Masmoudi Saghir which means "little masmoudi". (There is a different rhythm which is known as "big masmoudi".) In the United States, the maqsoum rhythm is also frequently called "beledi". It is in 4/4 time, which means there are 4 beats to a measure and a quarter note gets one count. When played on a dumbek, it sounds like DOOM DOOM teka tek, DOOM teka tek. The above musical notation describes the maqsoum rhythm, with the DOOM sound falling on the accented notes. Click here to hear the maqsoum rhythm played on a dumbek.|
Mawwal. (Pronounced "mah WALL".) Sometimes spelled Mawal. In Arabic music, this refers to free, non-rhythmic singing. It's a vocal improvisation that sounds melancholy.
Me-Attaa. (Pronounced "may AHT tah".) In traditional Arabic music, this refers to the question-and-answer that goes back and forth between a melody instrument and a drummer. This generally appears at the beginning of a song, immediately after a very brief opening taxim played by the melodic instrument, and serves as the prelude just before launching fully into the rhythm of the song to come. The word means "broken up bits of music and rhythm."
Mizmar. (Pronounced "MIZZ mar".) This musical instrument, which resembles a Zurna, produces a loud, blaring sound. It is a member of the oboe family of musical instruments.
|Ney. (Pronounced "nay".) This is a traditional instrument used in Turkish and Arabic folk music that resembles a flute both in appearance and sound. Sometimes spelled Nay.|
|Om Kalsoum. See the entry for Um Kulthum.|
|Oud. (Pronounced "ood" where the "oo" sound is like that in "moon".) Sometimes spelled Ud. This is a musical instrument commonly used in Arabic, Turkish, and Armenian music which was the forerunner of the European lute. It has 11 strings and no frets. The melody is produced through plucking the strings. Literally, the word "oud" means "wood", and the instrument is made by gluing thin tapered strips of wood edge to edge. The glue line is usually no more than a thousandth of an inch wide! The oud was introduced by the Persians to Arabia in the Middle Ages, and passed to Europe through Islamic Spain.|
Ouled Nail. (Pronounced "WELL ed nah EEL".) Tribe that lived in Algeria, near Biskra.
Qanun. See the entry for Kanoun.
Rakkas. This Arabic word means, "the male dancer".
Rakkasah. This Arabic word means, "the female dancer". This is also the name of a very famous, very popular annual belly dance festival that is held in Richmond, California (near Oakland).
Raqs. (Pronounced "rocks".) This is the Arabic word for "the act of dancing", and is sometimes spelled Raks. It usually appears combined with another word that defines what type of dance--for example, Raks Leyla means "Leyla's dance". ("Leyla" is a common Arabic woman's name.)
Raqs Al Assaya. (Pronounced "rocks all uh SI yuh", with the "SI" syllable rhyming with "pie".) Sometimes spelled Raks Al Assaya. This is the Arabic term for the cane dance. This dance originated in southern Egypt, in the region known as the Said or Upper Egypt. Traditionally, in the Said, men carried long sticks with them which they used as weapons, and eventually they evolved a dance (see the entry for Tahtiyb) in which they feigned fighting with these sticks. Women then began dancing with canes as a way of playfully imitating this men's dance, and eventually raks al assaya developed into a distinct women's dance. See the entry for Beledi for a picture showing Morocco performing raks al assaya.
Raqs Al Balas. (Pronounced "rocks all BAH luhs".) Water jug dance.
|Raqs Al Nashaat. This Khaleegy women's dance is a social dance traditionally done in the Persian Gulf at women's parties and weddings, even today. The rhythm for this music is sometimes called Saudi, since Saudi Arabia is one of the countries in the region where this music is popular. Examples of songs popular in the Gulf region that use this rhythm are Aba'ad which is a Kuwaiti song popularized by Mohamed Abdou, Meta Ashoofek which is Yemeni folk music, and Salemo Lee which is Kuwaiti folk music. Each participant wears a Thobe Al Nashal that completely covers her party clothes. The footwork in raqs al nashaat is very simple--the dancer steps forward on one foot flat, closes the ball of the back foot behind it, then steps forward again on the first foot. She then pauses very briefly in this position and repeats the whole thing on the other side. The primary movements that characterize this dance are head tosses (hence the name raqs al-nashaat, which means "hair tossing"), and hand movements holding the thobe al nashal such as those shown with the entries in this glossary for Khaleegy and Thobe Al Nashal. In this picture, Shira is wearing a thobe al nashal and doing the hair tosses which are typical in raks al nashaat. PHOTO CREDIT: Photograph by John Rickman.|
Raqs Al Shamadan. (Pronounced "rocks all SHAH muh dahn".) This is an Egyptian dance traditionally performed at weddings in which the dancer has a large, ornate candelabrum on her head. "Shamadan" is the Egyptian word for "candelabrum". A nice example of this dance is performed by Alia on the Arabian Melodies video produced by Sphinx Records.
Raqs Sharki. (Pronounced "rocks SHARK-ee".) Also sometimes spelled Raqs Sharqi. In Arabic, this means "dance of the East", and refers to cabaret-style belly dance as it is performed in nightclubs in Egypt, Lebanon, and other Arabic countries.
Raqsah. (Pronounced "ROCKS ah".) This is the Arabic word referring to a single specific dance.
Raqsat. (Pronounced "ROCKS aht.) This means many dances--the plural of Raqsah.
|Rebaba. (Pronounced "ruh BAH buh".) Also sometimes spelled Rababa. This is a stringed instrument, typically used in music of the Said (Upper Egypt). It has one or two strings. The music appearing on cassette tapes or CD's by Metkal Kanawi uses rebabas extensively.|
|Riqq. (Pronounced "reek".) This is the Arabic word for tambourine. It is sometimes spelled Riq or Reque.||
|Sagat. (Pronouced "suh GOT".) This is the Arabic name for finger cymbals, and means "small metal trays". Sometimes spelled Zagat.|
Saidi. (Pronounced "sah EE dee".) This refers to anything that has to do with the Said region of Egypt. The Said region is also known as "Upper Egypt", and is located in the southern part of the country. Raqs al assaya (the cane dance) originated in the Said. For an excellent example of Saidi music, listen to any cassette tape or CD by Metkal Kanawi.
Saudi. (Pronounced "sah OO dee".) People in the United States often use this to refer to anything that has to do with the region of the Saudi Arabia peninsula, especially the musical rhythm that is particularly associated with this region. A more appropriate term would be Khaleegy. See the entry for Khaleegy for more information.
|Saz. (Pronounced "sahz".) This is a gourd-shaped Turkish stringed instrument, resembling a lute only with a smaller base. It has frets whose positions can be adjusted, enabling the musician to get varying quarter tones. Different maqams require the frets to be set in different positions. The saz was the ancestor of the Greek bouzouki.|
Schikhatt. (Pronounced "SHE kaht".) Other valid spellings include Chikhat, Shakhatt, or Shikhatt. The Schikhatt is a particular style of dance which originated in Morocco. Originally, it was an erotic dance with exaggerated hip, stomach, and breast movements used to educate a bride during the pre-wedding festivities on how she will be expected to move in the marriage bed. More recently, the Schikhatt has become a social dance that women do with their families or female friends.
Shaabi. (Pronounced "SHAH bee".) This refers to a type of modern-day Egyptian music. Shaabi music is the music of the back streets of Cairo, modernized and not necessarily poor, but traditional. It includes woeful cries of mawwal, a vocal improvisation saddening melancholy hearts with themes never straying too far from the pain, torture, suffering, and betrayal that is life. Lyrics often stray into commentaries on events and social conditions. Vocalists whose music is representative of the shaabi style include Hassan El Asmar, Magdy Talaat, Sami Ali & Sahar Hamdy, Shaaban Abdel Raheem, and Magdy Shabeeni. A CD that contains excellent examples of shaabi music is Yalla Hitlist Egypt, which can be purchased from belly dance vendors or other merchants who specialize in Arabic music.
Shalabeya. See the entry for Kawala.
Shamadan. See the entry for Raqs Al Shamadan.
Shebecka. (Pronounced "shuh BECK kuh".) This is the Egyptian name for the body stocking that is worn with bedleh.
Souq. (Pronounced "sook", in which the "oo" sound is like that in the word "root".) It is sometimes spelled Souk, Suq, or Suk. In Arab countries, this is a market place, with row upon row of stalls of vendors selling their wares. Belly dance event organizers will sometimes refer to the section of their event that features the vendors as a souq.
Sufi. (Pronounced "SOO fee".) A sect within Islam focused on philosophy and mysticism. One Sufi form of expression that most Westerners have heard of is the "whirling dervish". The whirling is a form of movement meditation.
Tahtiyb. (Pronounced "tah TEEB".) It is sometimes spelled Tahtib or Tahteeb. This is a men's dance, done in Upper Egypt (the region in southern Egypt known as the Said). It is a martial arts dance, in which the men enact fighting with the long sticks as a weapon. Raqs al assaya (the cane dance) done by Egyptian women arose as a playful imitation of this men's dance.
Takht. (Pronounced "tahkt".) This refers to a small ensemble of Egyptian musicians, often including oud, kanoun, nay, tabla & riqq (tambourine). Originally, the word referred to a small bench or bed, and in the early nightclubs of Egypt, the musicians sat on such a bench to play.
Taqsim. (Pronounced "tock SEEM".) You may also see it spelled Taksim, Taxsim, Taxim, or Takasim. It is an Arabic word which means "division", and refers to the section of music where a specific instrument is playing a solo. The Arabic taqsim is improvisedin a restricted senseaccording to traditional patterns, and is almost never played in the same way twice. Musically speaking, any solo instrument improvising in the Arabic taqsim structure is playing a taqsim, including the drum taqsim that dancers usually call the drum solo. However, belly dancers often use the term another way, referring to the section of music consisting of slow, hypnotic improvisation of a melody instrument such as an oud or kanoun that is often used for either floor work, balancing, or standing undulations. Some belly dancers also use the word "taqsim" as the name for certain undulating movements that might be done to this musical section.
Tar. (Pronounced "tar".) This is a Middle Eastern frame drum which looks like a large tambourine. Another name for it is Def.
Thobe. (Pronounced "tobe".) You may also see this spelled Taub. This is the Arabic word for dress. Different styles of thobes are typical of different parts of Arabia. Many dancers say just "thobe" when they really mean "thobe al nasha'ar", which is a particular style of dress (see below).
|Thobe Al Nashal. (Pronounced "tobe ahl nuh-SHELL".) Written in Arabic as ثوب الن You may also see this spelled Taub. This is a richly embroidered dress worn in the Persian Gulf (Khaleegy) region, in countries such as Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and Dubai. It is sometimes called a Khaleegy Dress. It's a large, somewhat sheer rectangular piece of fabric, worn over the top of your party clothes. There is a vertical center panel down the front of the dress, just below the neck opening, that has particularly heavy embroidery. The arm openings on the sleeves are very large. In the photograph to the right, Shira is dancing in a black thobe al nashal with gold embroidery and pearl-colored beads. This pose is typical of raqs al nashaat ("hair tossing dance"), the dance that is done in a thobe al nashal. The thobe al nashal is designed to be so long that it would drag on the floor if you didn't pick it up and hold it like this. PHOTO CREDIT: Photo by John Rickman. See the entries for Khaleegy and Raqs Al Nashaat to see another photo of this thobe al nasha'ar taken from a different angle.|
Tulle Bi Telli. (Pronounced TOOL bee TELL ee.) A textile art from Egypt in which tiny bits of metal are attached into net fabric (tulle) to create a design. The Egyptian name means "tulle with metal". Dancers in the United States made up the name "assuit" to describe this fabric.
Ud. See the entry for Oud.
Um Kulthum. (Pronounced "oom kahl THOOM".) Um Kulthum was a much-beloved vocalist whose songs were very, very popular in Arabic countries. Other spellings for her name include Om Kalsoum, Um Kalthoum, and other variations. She recorded literally hundreds of songs, including Inte Omri, Ana Fi Inti Zahark, Leilet Hob, Lisah Faker, Hazizi Leilati, and many others. She was born around 1904 (the exact date isn't certain), and first became famous around 1928. The 1940's and 1950's became known as the "golden age" of Um Kulthum. She continued recording through the 1960's, and died in 1975. To view a longer list of songs she popularized, as well as learn more about her, visit the Al Mashriq web site. Translations for the lyrics to three of her songs can be found right here on this web site.
Upper Egypt. Refers to the southern part of Egypt, also known as the Said.
Uzun Havalar. (Pronounced "OOH zoon HAHV uh lar".) This refers to Turkish music that has no rhythm or measure, and sounds improvised. It is conceptually equivalent to the Arabic taqsim.
Zagat. See the entry for Sagat.
Zaghareet. (Pronounced "zah guh REET".) The zaghareet is a high-pitched ululation done with the tongue. It is a sound of celebration associated with weddings, parties, and other joyful occasions. Within the context of belly dancing, it is a favorite tool for expressing approval for whatever the dancer is doing at the time, and sometimes dancers themselves will zaghareet to express how much fun they're having at the moment.
Zeffa. (Pronounced "ZEFF uh".) This term is often used to refer to an Arabic wedding procession. The newly married couple is led into the reception hall in a formal procession to acknowledge their new status. A zeffa frequently is led by a belly dancer. The term can also be used to refer to the musical rhythm that is characteristically used in the music played for these processions.
Zills. (Pronounced "ZILLS".) Sometimes spelled Zils. This is the Turkish name for finger cymbals.
Zumara. (Pronounced "zoo MAR ah".) A reed instrument with a backward cut. Made with a single tube.
|Zurna. (Pronounced "ZERN uh".) This is a type of horn used in Turkish folk music, which is a member of the oboe family of musical instruments. It produces a loud, very ethnic-sounding tone.|
Many thanks to Morocco and the many other members of the med-dance listserver on the Internet for sharing your knowledge about Middle Eastern dancing, language, and culture! Without your generosity in telling the rest of us what you know, I wouldn't have been able to compile this glossary!
Many thanks to Morocco for giving permission for the photographs of her to appear on my web site. Morocco is a well-known instructor, performer, and dance researcher based in New York City. Her web site features several informative articles that she has written as a result of her research--check it out at http://www.casbahdance.org/!
I appreciate Mark Bell from the band Helm for taking the time to explain to me what a kawala and zumara are.
Thank you very much to John Rickman for taking the beautiful photographs of me wearing my thobe.
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